Notes and References
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Acts of the Apostles
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COVENANTS OF ISRAEL
The Covenant of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
Everything in the New Testament points to the covenant with Abraham, the promises to Isaac and Jacob, the Law of Moses, and the prophets. The Bible is a Jewish book with Jewish origins. Jesus was fully a Jew and a descendant of King David. Jesus came for the Jews or the circumcision only.
8Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers:
9And that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy;
Although the Apostle Paul is using this scripture as a confirmation that the salvation of the Gentiles would come through Jesus' death, burial, and resurrection, it is clear, by the scriptures I presented earlier in these studies and in this reference, that Jesus Christ came to fulfill all the promises to the patriarchs and the prophets' utterances, to the Jews only.
I am sorry to inundate you with so much scripture, but it is only with scripture I am compelled to teach the views of the early Jewish believers, before the knowledge of salvation by the blood sacrifice of Jesus, which by the cross, all men, Jew and Gentile, are forgiven of their sins, and the curse of Adam removed, and that all men are now freed from the laws of Moses.
Covenant with Abram or Abraham
• I will make of thee a great nation
• I will bless thee
• make thy name great
• thou shalt be a blessing
• in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed
• make thee exceeding fruitful
• I will make nations of thee
• kings shall come out of thee
• to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee
• Unto thy seed will I give this land: all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession
Abraham's Part And His Seed Or Offspring
• Every man child among you shall be circumcised.
2And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:
3And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
6And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land.
7And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land:
6And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.
7And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.
8And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.
9And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations.
10This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised.
11And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you.
12And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed.
13He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.
14And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.
The Lord is speaking to the angels of destruction and Abraham face to face and soon to reveal the destruction of Sodom and Gommorrah.
18Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?
Covenant with Isaac
19And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him.
20And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a (singular) great nation.
21But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year.
Covenant with Jacob or Israel
Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel:
SIDE NOTE FOR DANIEL'S PROPHECY (DAN 9:24) FROM GEN 29:27 1 WEEK IS SEVEN YEARSJacob served 7 years for Rachel, but was tricked and married Leah, now he had to serve another 7 years.
27Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.
Back to Jacob
11And God said unto him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins;
12And the land which I gave Abraham and Isaac, to thee I will give it, and to thy seed after thee will I give the land.
Leah and Rachel and their handmaids are the mother's of the 12 tribes of Israel / Jacob
1. Reuban - Leah
2. Simeon - Leah
3. Levi - Leah
4. Judah - Leah
5. Dan - Bilhah - Rachel's handmaid
6. Naphtali - Bilhah - Rachel's handmaid
7. Gad - Zilpah - Leah's handmaid
8. Asher - Zilpah - Leah's handmaid
9. Issachar - Leah
10. Zebulun - Leah
11. Joseph - Rachel
12. Benjamin - Rachel - she died giving childbirth.
28All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake unto them, and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them.
Jacob / Israel is dying and gathers all of his sons together and prophesies over them. This is the prophecy/blessing over Judah the fourth.
10The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.
Out of Judah comes King David and from hence the kings are hereditary from the lineage of David, of which Jesus is a descendant. Shiloh means prince of peace and in my opinion is pointing directly at Jesus Christ.
This is the covenant of Abraham with God in completion. There is no law but that of circumcision. There are certain expectations in behavior of course! Sacrifice, morality, honesty, a man's word is his bond, etc. These are an unwritten code among men. Dealing treacherously brought severe consequences or death by the hand of the one mistreated. Concerning God - salvation came through the lineage of Abraham and circumcision.
14And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.
Covenant with Moses
2Hear ye the words of this covenant, and speak unto the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem;
3And say thou unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel; Cursed be the man that obeyeth not the words of this covenant,
4Which I commanded your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, from the iron furnace, saying, Obey my voice, and do them, according to all which I command you: so shall ye be my people, and I will be your God:
5That I may perform the oath which I have sworn unto your fathers, to give them a land flowing with milk and honey, as it is this day. Then answered I, and said, So be it, O LORD.
17And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.
21Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.
22And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.
23For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.
24And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.
42It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
The covenant of circumcision is still in force.
48And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.
49One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.
50Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
51And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.
SabbathMoses was on the mount when this covenant was spoken by God. The tablets of stone were then given to Moses, soon only to be broken into pieces because of the evil Moses saw at his return from the mount.
14Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.
15Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.
16Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.
Possess the Land
Exodus 33 :1
1And the LORD said unto Moses, Depart, and go up hence, thou and the people which thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, Unto thy seed will I give it:
Then of course all the 600 + laws followed known as the Mosaic Law.
Covenant with David
Nathan the prophet is speaking to King David.
2 Samuel 7:10-16
10Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime,
11And as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel, and have caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also the LORD telleth thee that he will make thee an house.
12And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.
13He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever.
14I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men:
15But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee.
16And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.
30And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
31And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
32He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
33And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
Mashiach or Messiah - Purely from Jewish Thought and Website
(I just love this answer to my question - which is, "What or who do Jews think the messiah will be?")
I pulled out parts of this web page pertinent to our study, but you can view all of the Jewish thought by clicking the link.
"mashiach" literally means "the anointed one,"
The word "mashiach" does not mean "savior."
!!Pertaining to Mashiach: But if that person dies before he completes the mission of the mashiach, then that person is not the mashiach.
!! Mary's comment: See how important the proof of the resurrection was!!
• The mashiach will be a great political leader descended from King David (Jeremiah 23:5).
• The mashiach is often referred to as "mashiach ben David" (mashiach, son of David).
• He will be well-versed in Jewish law, and observant of its commandments (Isaiah 11:2-5).
• He will be a charismatic leader, inspiring others to follow his example.
• He will be a great military leader, who will win battles for Israel.
• He will be a great judge, who makes righteous decisions (Jeremiah 33:15).
When Will the Mashiach Come?
(We believe Jesus is the Mashiach - this is Jewish thought)
There are a wide variety of opinions on the subject of when the mashiach will come. Some of Judaism's greatest minds have cursed those who try to predict the time of the mashiach's coming, because errors in such predictions could cause people to lose faith in the messianic idea or in Judaism itself.
Although some scholars believed that God has set aside a specific date for the coming of the mashiach, most authority suggests that the conduct of mankind will determine the time of the mashiach's coming. In general, it is believed that the mashiach will come in a time when he is most needed (because the world is so sinful), or in a time when he is most deserved (because the world is so good). For example, each of the following has been suggested as the time when the mashiach will come:
• *if Israel repented a single day;
• if Israel observed a single Shabbat properly;
• if Israel observed two Shabbats in a row properly;
• **in a generation that is totally innocent or totally guilty;
• in a generation that loses hope;
• in a generation where children are totally disrespectful towards their parents and elders;
* Mary's comment:Total repentance is what the apostles were trying to accomplish
** Mary's comment:This "untoward generation" that killed the Mashiach.
What Will the Mashiach Do?
Before the time of the mashiach, there shall be war and suffering (Ezekiel 38:16)
• political and spiritual redemption of the Jewish people by bringing us back to Israel and restoring Jerusalem (Isaiah 11:11-12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3; Hosea 3:4-5).
• establish a government in Israel (Isaiah 2:2-4; 11:10; 42:1).
• rebuild the Temple and re-establish its worship (Jeremiah 33:18).
• establish Jewish law as the law of the land (Jeremiah 33:15).
Olam Ha-Ba: The Messianic AgeThe world after the messiah comes is often referred to in Jewish literature as Olam Ha-Ba (oh-LAHM hah-BAH), the World to Come.
• peaceful co-existence of all people (Isaiah 2:4).
• laws of nature will change, so that predatory beasts will no longer seek prey
• agriculture will bring forth supernatural abundance (Isaiah 11:6-11:9).
• All of the Jewish people will return from their exile among the nations to their home in Israel (Isaiah 11:11-12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3; Hosea 3:4-5).
• The law of the Jubilee will be reinstated.
• whole world will recognize the Jewish God as the only true God, and the Jewish religion as the only true religion (Isaiah 2:3; 11:10; Micah 4:2-3; Zechariah 14:9).
• There will be no sin (Zephaniah 3:13).
• Sacrifices will continue to be brought in the Temple, but these will be limited to thanksgiving offerings,
• there will be no further need for expiatory offerings.
Biblical Passages Referring to the Mashiach
The following passages in the Jewish scriptures are the ones that Jews consider to be messianic in nature or relating to the end of days. These are the ones that we rely upon in developing our messianic concept:
Isaiah 2, 11, 42; 59:20
Jeremiah 23, 30, 33; 48:47; 49:39
I am trying to spell out as clearly as possible in such a short span of time, that the early Jewish believers were looking for something completely different than Jesus Christ, the Mashiach, whom we know and love. They were looking for the promised soon returning King, on earth, to rule the kingdom of Israel, from Jerusalem, to conquer Rome, to usher in a permanent peace, and then all the nations of the earth would be blessed. Obviously from the Jewish website I quoted and linked to, they are still to this day.
Hebrews is an exposition of Jesus as Mashiach and keeping the Law of Moses is no longer necessary for salvation because Christ died for our sins and is raised from the dead.
Romans 2:29 circumcision is of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter.
So even circumcision in Abraham's covenant was completely fulfilled by Jesus. Gentiles were not required to be circumcised. Jesus did everything for us, for mankind. He did our part.
We have the knowledge of the 'mystery' that was revealed FIRST to the Apostle Paul (Galatians 1:11,12), that our faith in the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ is all that is necessary for salvation and for the impartation of the gift of the Holy Spirit, our seal of earnest, for the promise of everlasting life.
Next study is chapter 4